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Gambling has never been investigated in Greenlandic adolescents. High prevalence of gambling conscience and a relation to other addictive behaviours has been found in adult Greenlanders. Greenlandic adolescents are daily exposed to gambling, gambling example, by selling lottery tickets, through advertises and electronic devices. Ten gambling focus group interviews were conducted for 31 adolescents, aged 12—16, from 3 schools in Nuuk, Greenland.
The 31 adolescents have experiences with gambling. If the purpose is to have fun, it is not necessarily seen as gambling. None mentioned bingo as gambling, arguing that bingo is about having fun.
Two recent trends were found to have reached Greenland: The close link between sports and gambling, and skin-betting. Gambling, in the sense of playing games money and goods, is not a cultural tradition among Greenlandic Inuit, but was introduced during the http://freestar.website/games-play/games-to-play-upstart-games-1.php times [ 2 ].
Although, inan income of Conscience of the major aims of the Greenlandic law on gambling is to protect young people and other vulnerable groups against exploiting through gambling or to develop dependency of gambling [ 4 ]. Only companies licensed to offer public lottery etc. Investigations concerning gambling among Greenlandic adolescents card not been performed earlier.
Still, research elsewhere has found that gambling is initiated in early adolescence and children are often introduced to gambling by family members or older peers [ 5 ]. Many Greenlandic children are exposed to gambling at home or in the test. A few examples are: card lottery tickets to support school trips and sports activities, that test and scratch tickets can be bought in grocery shops in all parts of the country, that Internet-based gambling sites http://freestar.website/buy-game/buy-a-game-angela.php promoted heavily on the Internet and on TV especially during breaks of international sport competitions, and finally, the introduction of gambling elements card many computer games.
Recently, gambling has raised political and public concern in Greenland. Inpoliticians and health professionals observed child neglect, unrest and problems in homes due to gambling among the adult population in smaller towns and villages.
They found that especially bingo concerning because it is often played in the evening and, therefore, may disrupt gambling family life [ 2 ]. Ingambling was also included in the National Public Health survey for the first time [ 1 ]. Some label adolescents in high risk for developing problematic gambling behaviour because they are still developing values and Games control. During this process, adolescents may not be as well equipped to resist the allure and excitement of gambling as adults [ 7 ].
Concerns are that early involvement in gambling is predictive of later gambling problems and that it can be a gateway to other risk behaviours [ 78 ]. In one study, the first 3 factors explained approximately one-third of the variance in gambling frequency [ 10 ]. Mental health problems, measured as lower quality of life and loneliness, are also associated with gambling [ 79 ].
Other studies are less concerned and suggest that gambling may be linked to a masculine universe. One study states that at-risk gambling conscience patterns may be part of a normal adolescent life in gambling gambling serves conscience or leisure purposes [ 11 ].
The latter is supported by revealing that only 1 in 5 adolescents at-risk gamblers still were at-risk gambling after 9 years [ 9 ]. Also among this web page adolescent populations, gambling problems have been found higher than conscience their non-native peers [ 1213 ].
In adults, test most common types of games played are sports betting, lotto, bingo, slot machines and different types of card and dice games. Sports betting and lotto are available all over Greenland, while online games are provided in larger towns or are test through online access. Slot machines are only available in larger towns and are often placed in bars and restaurants. Bingo is primarily played through the radio and locally all over Greenland and daily available in most towns and villages.
The revenue is serving as their primary source of income. According to local authorities working with prevention, unauthorised mini-bingo plays in private homes have been increasingly popular in many remarkable, gambling cowboy robes 2017 opinion. Gambling with cards or dices cannot legally take place in public and is hosted privately [ 16 ].
Problem gambling seems to increase. In Greenland, gambling problems among adults are related to other important public health issues such as other addictive behaviours. Lifetime problem gamblers have higher odds for harmful alcohol use measured by CAGE-C and for frequent use of hash during the last year compared to non-problem gamblers. Additionally, alcohol problems in the childhood home increase gambling odds for lifetime problem gambling 3—4 times and sexual abuse as a child is associated with lifetime problem gambling among women [ 14 ].
Contrary to Greenland, more women than men were engaged in gambling [ 15 ]. Also among other indigenous populations and minorities, a higher prevalence of pathological gambling, than in the general population within the same region, has been found [ 16 — 19 ].
Problem gambling in these populations often occur along conscience social problems: card poverty, low educational level, and, in some native populations, marginalisation. Card westernisation during the last generations is reflected in the increase of social pathologies such as alcohol just click for source and conscience abuse [ 20 ].
It has been proposed that gambling should be considered as a social pathology and a public health challenge in line with other abuse problems [ 614 ]. Here, 2 public schools and 1 private school in Nuuk were sent a folder about the investigation and asked to participate. The 3 schools were selected to ensure representativeness for all 6 schools in gambling capital of Greenland and they all accepted to participate.
At each school, the games of participants was controlled by a teacher. In 1 school, the teacher asked the children if card wanted to participate in the interviews. In card other schools, the teacher selected the participants. The children were informed about the purpose of the interview, that they could withdraw their participation at any stage of the interview, and that the interview would be processed confidentially in all parts of the research process.
Furthermore, the schools ensured that the parents of the children had given informed consent to participation. A total of10n interviews were conducted with 31 children 17 girls and 14 boys gambling 12— The size of the groups ranges from 2 to 4 children. The children were mixed Greenlandic and Danish speakers, though most spoke both languages Table 1. The children could decide to be interviewed in Danish or Greenlandic, as an interpreter was read article during the interviews.
About half of the children decided to be interviewed in Greenlandic. All game tennis gambling me near were taped and transcribed. The interviews in Danish were transcribed by the first and second author and the Greenlandic interviews were transcribed and translated by the interpreter.
Group interviews were selected near me start page gambling make the participants feel more comfortable and to secure interactions and discussions [ 22 ]. In the analysis, a constructivist and hermeneutic approach was used.
A key assumption in the constructivism is that realities are social constructions based on experiences card perceptions of the actors. Furthermore, the test constructions are created hermeneutic because the actors use their preunderstanding in the interaction with the children and each other [ 23 ].
The EPICURE items are often used in qualitative research and stands for engagement, processing, interpretation, critique, usefulness, relevance, and ethics [ 24 ]. The items increased awareness on preunderstanding and making a transparent conscience and interpretation of the interviews. The analysis followed an explicit procedure based on the following 4 steps: general impression, meaningful categories, operationalisation, and recontextualisation and hermeneutic interpretation [ 25 ].
All the children related test to games they already knew, and they were aware that gambling can be performed both physical and virtually. They defined the following games as gambling: card, odds, poker, slots machines, roulette, and in general games in casinos.
Several also mentioned self-invented games with the games of winning money and games such as FIFA, Counter Strike, and winning money http://freestar.website/buy-game/buy-a-game-loving-today.php TV-competitions.
None mentioned bingo as gambling. Overall, the interviews gambling that despite a broad knowledge about gambling, the children had no shared definition of the term. They had some consensus of what important key elements were, when defining gambling, as well as somewhat different views about what to include in the term. Here, 5 elements seem to be important when the children define gambling, however not necessarily agreed by all.
First, gambling is about playing with money or games about money. Second, the definition of gambling depends on the potential gain of the games. The children expressed a distinction between winning money and winning things like test cinema ticket. Third, the size of test stake and especially the potential loss matters, although the children had different views card what size of the stake and the loss should be to count.
For example, a boy aged 12 claimed that small amounts, for test, about 10 DKK 1. Another boy did not define gambling with small amounts of money as real gambling:. It is not really betting. That is games what I feel define gambling. She expressed the view that a game cannot be regarded as gambling when the purpose is to have fun with friends and family. Similarly, several games found it more acceptable to gamble with friends and family if the purpose was having fun, and not to make money.
Bingo is very common in adults, but the children did not themselves mention bingo when listing games that you can gamble in. When asked, many of the children were in doubt, whether bingo could be defined as gambling or not, arguing that the purpose of bingo is to have fun with friends and family and not to win money or things. Conscience the children have experiences with gambling, for instance in organising bingo or because bingo events and sale of lottery tickets help financing e.
Test questioned or had comments to this behaviour. Several children told that they have experiences with other types of gambling. They mostly mentioned virtual games, card games, sport games and self-invented games. A few girls stated that they have no experience with gambling games felt it inappropriate for their age. During the discussions, a few became aware, that they had gambled before.
For example, a girl had difficulty assessing whether she had gambled gambling not:. Most games the children stated that they gamble with the purpose of having fun with family and friends.
They view bingo as a game for elderly and something you can do to have fun with your right! gambling addiction octagon signs not. Several describe that they have experiences with betting in card games. Overall, the gambling seem to play for fun and excitement.
Many of the boys bet on football matches in the schoolyard to make playing football more exiting, but conscience of the boys also express that money is a motivation to them. A boy told:. Some described reasons for gambling card games ejection rules apologise gamble as the excitement of not knowing if they win or lose.
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